Full Site Search  
Sun Jan 21, 2018 18:10:22 IST
PostPostPost Trn TipPost Trn TipPost Stn TipPost Stn TipAdvanced Search
×
Search Trains (A->B)
DOJ:
Dep:
SunMonTueWedThuFriSat
Class:
2SSLCCEx3AFC2A1A3E
 
more search options ...

Train Details
Words:
LHB/ICF:
Pantry:
In-Coach Catering/Pantry Car
Loco:
Reversal:
Rake Reversal at Any Stn
Rake:
RSA:
With RSA
Inaug Date:
 to 
# Halts: to 
Trvl Time: to  (in hrs)
Distance: to  (in kms)
Speed: to  (in km/h)

Departure Details
Include nearby Stations:      ONLY this Station:
Dep Between:    
Dep PF#:
Reversal:
Rake Reversal at Dep Stn

Arrival Details
Include nearby Stations:      ONLY this Station:
Arr Days:
SunMonTueWedThuFriSat
Arr Between:    
Arr PF#:
Reversal:
Rake Reversal at Arr Stn

KYN/Kalyan Junction to RTM/Ratlam Junction
44 Trains / 17 ΣChains

 
 
2 Rajdhani Trains 1 Garib Rath Trains 11 Mail/Express Trains 2 AC SuperFast Trains 5 Duronto Trains 21 SuperFast Trains 1 Suvidha Trains 1 Antyodaya Trains

Shortest Route: 648.03 km

The Shortest Route passes through:
Vadodara

Try these Xfer Stations: Surat   Lokmanya Tilak Terminus   Jodhpur   Vadodara  

44 Long-Distance Trains

22901 Mumbai Bandra Terminus - Udaipur City SF Express
S  W F 
BVI/Borivali
53 km from KYN/Kalyan Junction
Departure @ 00:02 +1
RTM/Ratlam Junction
Arrival @ 09:25 +25
Pooled Quota/PQ Waitlist
IISL
3A
2A
Arr Time Changed. Speeded up by: 10m.
TT Updated: Nov 01 2017 (04:05) by Jay Shah*^~
19041 Bandra Terminus - Ghazipur City Bi-Weekly Express
 M    S
BVI/Borivali
53 km from KYN/Kalyan Junction
Departure @ 00:02 +0
RTM/Ratlam Junction
Arrival @ 09:10 +0
Pooled Quota/PQ Waitlist
IISL
3A
2A
No TT Change.
TT Updated: Dec 09 2017 (14:48) by SRI LAKSHMI VENKATESWARA TRAVELS TIRUMALA^
22901-Slip Bandra Terminus - Ajmer Link Express
S  W F 
BVI/Borivali
53 km from KYN/Kalyan Junction
Departure @ 00:02
RTM/Ratlam Junction
Arrival @ 09:25 +1 night
Pooled Quota/PQ Waitlist
IISL
3A
2A
No TT Change.
TT Updated: Dec 20 2017 (09:10) by 12649⭐️ KSK ⭐️12650^~
01705 Bandra Terminus - Jabalpur SpecialFare SF Special
      S
BVI/Borivali
53 km from KYN/Kalyan Junction
Departure @ 00:48 +4
RTM/Ratlam Junction
Arrival @ 10:00 +18
General/GN Waitlist
IISL
3A
2A
Dep Time Changed. Arr Time Changed. Speeded up by: 45m.
TT Updated: Jan 11 2018 (10:57) by 12649⭐️ KSK ⭐️12650^~
19019 Mumbai Bandra (T.) - Dehradun Express
SMTWTFS
BSR/Vasai Road
41 km from KYN/Kalyan Junction
Departure @ 01:05 +2
RTM/Ratlam Junction
Arrival @ 12:20 +26
General/GN Waitlist
IISL
3A
2A
No Speed Change.
TT Updated: Nov 01 2017 (00:59) by 12649⭐️ KSK ⭐️12650^~
22653 Thiruvananthapuram Central - Hazrat Nizamuddin SF Express (via Kottayam) (PT)
S      
PNVL/Panvel Junction
33 km from KYN/Kalyan Junction
Departure @ 02:35 +0
RTM/Ratlam Junction
Arrival @ 14:20 +0
Remote Location/RL Waitlist
IISL
3A
2A
1A
Dep Time Changed. Arr Time Changed. Slowed down by: 45m.
TT Updated: Nov 18 2017 (22:08) by Solo™^~
22655 Thiruvananthapuram - Hazrat Nizamuddin SF Express (via Alappuzha)
    T  
PNVL/Panvel Junction
33 km from KYN/Kalyan Junction
Departure @ 02:35
RTM/Ratlam Junction
Arrival @ 14:20
Remote Location/RL Waitlist
IISL
3A
2A
1A
Dep Time Changed. Arr Time Changed. Speeded up by: 5m.
TT Updated: Nov 02 2017 (00:48) by 12649⭐️ KSK ⭐️12650^~
11101 Pune - Gwalior Weekly Express
 M     
PNVL/Panvel Junction
33 km from KYN/Kalyan Junction
Departure @ 02:55 +4
RTM/Ratlam Junction
Arrival @ 14:10 +0
Pooled Quota/PQ Waitlist
IISL
3A
2A
No Speed Change.
TT Updated: Nov 01 2017 (04:08) by 12649⭐️ KSK ⭐️12650^~
11104 Mumbai Bandra Terminus - Jhansi Express
  TW   
BVI/Borivali
53 km from KYN/Kalyan Junction
Departure @ 05:40 +0
RTM/Ratlam Junction
Arrival @ 14:45 +1
Pooled Quota/PQ Waitlist
IISL
3A
No Speed Change.
TT Updated: Dec 10 2017 (17:40) by 12649⭐️ KSK ⭐️12650^~
19061 Mumbai Bandra Terminus - Ramnagar Weekly Express
    T  
BVI/Borivali
53 km from KYN/Kalyan Junction
Departure @ 05:40 +0
RTM/Ratlam Junction
Arrival @ 14:40 +3
Pooled Quota/PQ Waitlist
IISL
3A
2A
No Speed Change.
TT Updated: Dec 10 2017 (17:41) by 12649⭐️ KSK ⭐️12650^~
22444 Mumbai Bandra (T.) - Kanpur (Weekly) SF Express
     F 
BVI/Borivali
53 km from KYN/Kalyan Junction
Departure @ 05:40 +48
RTM/Ratlam Junction
Arrival @ 14:40 +52
Pooled Quota/PQ Waitlist
IISL
3A
2A
No Speed Change.
TT Updated: Dec 10 2017 (17:41) by 12649⭐️ KSK ⭐️12650^~
22921 Bandra Terminus - Gorakhpur Antyodaya Express
S      
BVI/Borivali
53 km from KYN/Kalyan Junction
Departure @ 05:43 +0
RTM/Ratlam Junction
Arrival @ 14:40 +0

Unreserved
No Speed Change.
TT Updated: Dec 10 2017 (17:42) by 12649⭐️ KSK ⭐️12650^~
19023 Mumbai Firozpur Janta Express
SMTWTFS
BCT/Mumbai Central
47 km from KYN/Kalyan Junction
Departure @ 07:25 +0
RTM/Ratlam Junction
Arrival @ 20:45 +19
Pooled Quota/PQ Waitlist
II2S
SL
No Speed Change.
TT Updated: Nov 01 2017 (01:15) by Completed 1000 Friends on FB^~
12493 Pune - Hazrat Nizamuddin AC SF Express
S      
KYN/Kalyan Junction
Departure @ 07:50 +1
RTM/Ratlam Junction
Arrival @ 18:20 -1
Remote Location/RL Waitlist
3A
2A
1A
No TT Change.
TT Updated: Nov 01 2017 (09:54) by Rail Queue^~
04417 Pune - Hazrat Nizamuddin AC Special Fare Special
    T  
KYN/Kalyan Junction
Departure @ 07:50
RTM/Ratlam Junction
Arrival @ 18:20
Pooled Quota/PQ Waitlist
3A
2A
1A
No Speed Change.
TT Updated: Jan 12 2018 (13:25) by Diamond Jubliee for KOL Locals^~
12471 Swaraj Express (PT)
SM  TF 
BVI/Borivali
53 km from KYN/Kalyan Junction
Departure @ 08:28
RTM/Ratlam Junction
Arrival @ 17:50
Pooled Quota/PQ Waitlist
IISL
3A
2A
Arr Time Changed. Slowed down by: 5m.
TT Updated: Nov 01 2017 (00:07) by AS*^~
82653 Yesvantpur - Jaipur Suvidha Express
     F 
PNVL/Panvel Junction
33 km from KYN/Kalyan Junction
Departure @ 10:40
RTM/Ratlam Junction
Arrival @ 21:05
Remote Location/RL Waitlist
SL
3A
2A
No TT Change.
TT Updated: Jan 11 2018 (17:08) by Dharmesh S
22917 Mumbai Bandra Terminus - Haridwar SF Express
   W   
BVI/Borivali
53 km from KYN/Kalyan Junction
Departure @ 12:20 +0
RTM/Ratlam Junction
Arrival @ 22:50 -1
Pooled Quota/PQ Waitlist
IISL
3A
2A
No Speed Change.
TT Updated: Nov 01 2017 (01:06) by 12649⭐️ KSK ⭐️12650^~
12925 Paschim SF Express (PT)
SMTWTFS
BVI/Borivali
53 km from KYN/Kalyan Junction
Departure @ 12:37 +4
RTM/Ratlam Junction
Arrival @ 22:20 +5
Pooled Quota/PQ Waitlist
IISL
3A
2A
1A
No Speed Change.
TT Updated: Nov 01 2017 (00:15) by 12817 Jharkhand Swarna Jayanti 12818^~
12925-Slip Paschim Express Slip (PT)
SMTWTFS
BVI/Borivali
53 km from KYN/Kalyan Junction
Departure @ 12:37 +4
RTM/Ratlam Junction
Arrival @ 22:20 +1
Pooled Quota/PQ Waitlist
IISL
3A
2A
No Speed Change.
TT Updated: Nov 01 2017 (14:07) by Arpit P
19021 Mumbai Bandra (T.) - Lucknow Weekly Express
      S
BVI/Borivali
53 km from KYN/Kalyan Junction
Departure @ 13:23 +0
RTM/Ratlam Junction
Arrival @ 22:40 +0
Pooled Quota/PQ Waitlist
IISL
3A
2A
No Speed Change.
TT Updated: Nov 01 2017 (00:40) by Completed 1000 Friends on FB^~
19331 Kochuveli - Indore Weekly Express (PT)
      S
PNVL/Panvel Junction
33 km from KYN/Kalyan Junction
Departure @ 13:40
RTM/Ratlam Junction
Arrival @ 01:20 +1 night
Remote Location/RL Waitlist
IISL
3A
2A
Dep Time Changed. Arr Time Changed. Speeded up by: 1h 35m.
TT Updated: Nov 01 2017 (11:45) by Solo™^~
12263 Pune - Hazrat Nizamuddin AC Duronto Express
  T  F 
BSR/Vasai Road
41 km from KYN/Kalyan Junction
Departure @ 14:45 +1
RTM/Ratlam Junction
Arrival @ 22:10 +3
Pooled Quota/PQ Waitlist
3A
2A
1A
No Speed Change.
TT Updated: Nov 01 2017 (02:25) by Ramganj mandi a city of good people^~
12995 Mumbai Bandra (T.) - Udaipur City SuperFast Express
S  W F 
BVI/Borivali
53 km from KYN/Kalyan Junction
Departure @ 16:27
RTM/Ratlam Junction
Arrival @ 02:35 +1 night
Pooled Quota/PQ Waitlist
IISL
3A
2A
Arr Time Changed. Speeded up by: 15m.
TT Updated: Nov 01 2017 (10:45) by aavinseth~
12979 Mumbai Bandra (T.) - Jaipur SF Express
  T T S
BVI/Borivali
53 km from KYN/Kalyan Junction
Departure @ 16:27 +7
RTM/Ratlam Junction
Arrival @ 02:50 +10 +1 night
Pooled Quota/PQ Waitlist
IISL
3A
2A
1A
No Speed Change.
TT Updated: Nov 01 2017 (11:51) by Jay Shah*^~
12995-Slip Mumbai Bandra Terminus - Ajmer SF Express
S  W F 
BVI/Borivali
53 km from KYN/Kalyan Junction
Departure @ 16:27 +1
RTM/Ratlam Junction
Arrival @ 02:35 +18 +1 night
Pooled Quota/PQ Waitlist
IISL
3A
2A
Arr Time Changed. Speeded up by: 15m.
TT Updated: Dec 19 2017 (09:00) by ❤️SUPERMAN❤️^~
22933 Mumbai Bandra Terminus - Jaipur SF Express
 M     
BVI/Borivali
53 km from KYN/Kalyan Junction
Departure @ 16:27 +0
RTM/Ratlam Junction
Arrival @ 03:00 +1 +1 night
Pooled Quota/PQ Waitlist
IISL
3A
2A
Dep Time Changed. Slowed down by: 42m.
TT Updated: Nov 02 2017 (20:10) by Ramganj mandi a city of good people^~
12951 Mumbai Central - New Delhi Rajdhani Express
SMTWTFS
BCT/Mumbai Central
47 km from KYN/Kalyan Junction
Departure @ 17:00 +0
RTM/Ratlam Junction
Arrival @ 00:37 +10 +1 night
Road Side/RS Waitlist
3A
2A
1A
No TT Change.
TT Updated: Nov 10 2017 (05:47) by Jay Shah*^~
12909 Mumbai Bandra Terminus - Hazrat Nizamuddin Garib Rath Express (PT)
  T T S
BVI/Borivali
53 km from KYN/Kalyan Junction
Departure @ 17:09 +14
RTM/Ratlam Junction
Arrival @ 01:05 +24 +1 night
Pooled Quota/PQ Waitlist
CC
3A
No Speed Change.
TT Updated: Dec 11 2017 (13:05) by The Rail Thing®©^~
12953 August Kranti Rajdhani Express (PT)
SMTWTFS
BCT/Mumbai Central
47 km from KYN/Kalyan Junction
Departure @ 17:40 +2
RTM/Ratlam Junction
Arrival @ 02:18 +1 +1 night
Road Side/RS Waitlist
3A
2A
1A
No Speed Change.
TT Updated: Nov 14 2017 (01:04) by ▪▪▫▫◻◻◼◼ALIGARH◼◼◻◻▫▫▪▪^~
22633 Thiruvananthapuram Central - Hazrat Nizamuddin SF Express
    T  
PNVL/Panvel Junction
33 km from KYN/Kalyan Junction
Departure @ 18:10 +3
RTM/Ratlam Junction
Arrival @ 03:55 +3 +1 night
Pooled Quota/PQ Waitlist
IISL
3A
2A
1A
Dep Time Changed. Arr Time Changed. Speeded up by: 1h 15m.
TT Updated: Nov 01 2017 (08:45) by imaravIndian^~
22943 Pune - Indore Express (PT)
 MT TFS
KYN/Kalyan Junction
Departure @ 18:23 +18
RTM/Ratlam Junction
Arrival @ 05:00 +18 +1 night
Pooled Quota/PQ Waitlist
IISL
3A
2A
Dep Time Changed. Speeded up by: 38m.
TT Updated: Nov 25 2017 (12:04) by मुंबईCSMT Goregaav Harbour Local Soooon^~
12939 Pune - Jaipur SF Express
S  W   
KYN/Kalyan Junction
Departure @ 18:23 +3
RTM/Ratlam Junction
Arrival @ 05:00 +3 +1 night
Pooled Quota/PQ Waitlist
IISL
3A
2A
1A
Dep Time Changed. Speeded up by: 38m.
TT Updated: Jan 05 2018 (00:18) by 12649⭐️ KSK ⭐️12650^~
12955 Mumbai Central - Jaipur (Gangaur) SF Express (PT)
SMTWTFS
BCT/Mumbai Central
47 km from KYN/Kalyan Junction
Departure @ 18:50 +2
RTM/Ratlam Junction
Arrival @ 04:35 +10 +1 night
Pooled Quota/PQ Waitlist
IISL
3A
2A
1A
No Speed Change.
TT Updated: Jan 08 2018 (14:33) by 12649⭐️ KSK ⭐️12650^~
12961 Avantika SF Express (PT)
SMTWTFS
BCT/Mumbai Central
47 km from KYN/Kalyan Junction
Departure @ 19:10 +0
RTM/Ratlam Junction
Arrival @ 05:30 +17 +1 night
Pooled Quota/PQ Waitlist
IISL
3A
2A
1A
No Speed Change.
TT Updated: Nov 01 2017 (01:38) by Ramganj mandi a city of good people^~
12977 Marusagar SF Express (PT)
 M     
PNVL/Panvel Junction
33 km from KYN/Kalyan Junction
Departure @ 19:55 +7
RTM/Ratlam Junction
Arrival @ 06:20 +4 +1 night
Remote Location/RL Waitlist
IISL
3A
2A
1A
Dep Time Changed. Arr Time Changed. Speeded up by: 1h 20m.
TT Updated: Nov 12 2017 (15:20) by Ramganj mandi a city of good people^~
12903 Golden Temple Mail (PT)
SMTWTFS
BCT/Mumbai Central
47 km from KYN/Kalyan Junction
Departure @ 21:25
RTM/Ratlam Junction
Arrival @ 07:05 +1 night
Pooled Quota/PQ Waitlist
IISL
3A
2A
1A
Arr Time Changed. Slowed down by: 5m.
TT Updated: Jan 14 2018 (18:51) by 12817 Jharkhand Swarna Jayanti 12818^~
19311 Pune - Indore Express (via Panvel)
S  W   
BIRD/Bhiwandi Road
14 km from KYN/Kalyan Junction
Departure @ 21:30 +2
RTM/Ratlam Junction
Arrival @ 07:55 +0 +1 night
Remote Location/RL Waitlist
IISL
3A
2A
Dep Time Changed. Slowed down by: 1m.
TT Updated: Nov 12 2017 (15:16) by Ramganj mandi a city of good people^~
12283 Ernakulam - Hazrat Nizamuddin Duronto Express
   W   
PNVL/Panvel Junction
33 km from KYN/Kalyan Junction
Departure @ 22:20 +0
RTM/Ratlam Junction
Arrival @ 09:10 +0 +1 night
Remote Location/RL Waitlist
SL
3A
2A
1A
Dep Time Changed. Slowed down by: 25m.
TT Updated: Nov 01 2017 (10:39) by ▪▪▫▫◻◻◼◼ALIGARH◼◼◻◻▫▫▪▪^~
12227 Mumbai Central - Indore AC Duronto Express
    T S
BCT/Mumbai Central
47 km from KYN/Kalyan Junction
Departure @ 23:15 +0
RTM/Ratlam Junction
Arrival @ 07:35 +1 +1 night
General/GN Waitlist
3A
2A
1A
No TT Change.
TT Updated: Nov 01 2017 (11:52) by Rail Queue^~
12239 Mumbai Central - Jaipur AC Duronto Express
S T    
BCT/Mumbai Central
47 km from KYN/Kalyan Junction
Departure @ 23:15 +0
RTM/Ratlam Junction
Arrival @ 07:35 +0 +1 night
Pooled Quota/PQ Waitlist
3A
2A
1A
No TT Change.
TT Updated: Nov 01 2017 (11:49) by Ramganj mandi a city of good people^~
22209 Mumbai Central - New Delhi AC Duronto Express
 M   F 
BCT/Mumbai Central
47 km from KYN/Kalyan Junction
Departure @ 23:15 +0
RTM/Ratlam Junction
Arrival @ 07:35 +2 +1 night
Pooled Quota/PQ Waitlist
3A
2A
1A
No Speed Change.
TT Updated: Nov 01 2017 (19:31) by Piyush Singh
19037 Avadh Express (PT)
S TW F 
BVI/Borivali
53 km from KYN/Kalyan Junction
Departure @ 23:18
RTM/Ratlam Junction
Arrival @ 09:40 +1 night
Pooled Quota/PQ Waitlist
IISL
3A
2A
No Speed Change.
TT Updated: Nov 01 2017 (06:32) by ▪▪▫▫◻◻◼◼ALIGARH◼◼◻◻▫▫▪▪^~
19039 Avadh Express (PT)
 M  T S
BVI/Borivali
53 km from KYN/Kalyan Junction
Departure @ 23:18
RTM/Ratlam Junction
Arrival @ 09:40 +1 night
Pooled Quota/PQ Waitlist
IISL
3A
2A
No Speed Change.
TT Updated: Nov 01 2017 (10:17) by ❤️SUPERMAN❤️^~
17 ΣChains are available thru these Xfer Stations: Surat   Lokmanya Tilak Terminus   Jodhpur   Vadodara  

17 ΣChains

Σ Gulbarga - Vadodara - NDLS - Jammu Tawi SeamlessSF(Mon) ΣChain
no arr/dep
01
KYN Dep: 04:40 to RTM Arr: 17:50
Travel Time: 37h 10m    0 halts
Distance: 993 km  1 xfers
Σ Gulbarga - Vadodara - NDLS - Jammu Tawi SeamlessSF(Tue) ΣChain
  T    
01
KYN Dep: 04:40 to RTM Arr: 17:50
Travel Time: 37h 10m    -1 halts
Distance: 993 km  1 xfers
Σ Valsad-Jammu Tawi ΣChain
 M     
02
BCT Dep: 05:45 to RTM Arr: 17:50
Travel Time: 36h 5m    12 halts
Distance: 752 km  1 xfers
Σ Mumbai Central - BRC - Jammu Tawi (Sat) SF ΣChain
     F 
04
BCT Dep: 05:45 to RTM Arr: 17:45
Travel Time: 36h 0m    6 halts
Distance: 752 km  1 xfers
Σ Mumbai Central - BRC - Jammu Tawi (Wed) SF ΣChain
  T    
01
BCT Dep: 05:45 to RTM Arr: 17:50
Travel Time: 36h 5m    11 halts
Distance: 752 km  1 xfers
Σ Mumbai Central - BRC - Jammu Tawi (Sat) SF ΣChain
     F 
06
BCT Dep: 06:25 to RTM Arr: 17:45
Travel Time: 35h 20m    6 halts
Distance: 752 km  1 xfers
Σ Mumbai Central - BRC - Jammu Tawi (Tue) SF ΣChain
 M     
02
BCT Dep: 06:25 to RTM Arr: 17:50
Travel Time: 35h 25m    12 halts
Distance: 752 km  1 xfers
Σ Mumbai Central - BRC - Jammu Tawi (Wed) SF ΣChain
  T    
05
BCT Dep: 06:25 to RTM Arr: 17:50
Travel Time: 35h 25m    11 halts
Distance: 752 km  1 xfers
Σ BBS-Mumbai-ST chain ΣChain
     F 
10
KYN Dep: 12:25 to RTM Arr: 01:05
Travel Time: 12h 40m    -15 halts
Distance: 677 km  1 xfers
Σ mumbai nathdwara ΣChain
no arr/dep
011
BVI Dep: 12:50 to RTM Arr: 23:25
Travel Time: 58h 35m    12 halts
Distance: 2123 km  1 xfers
Σ Abu road makrana overnight ΣChain
      S
00
BVI Dep: 12:50 to NAD Arr: 19:15
Travel Time: 54h 25m    23 halts
Distance: 2638 km  1 xfers
Σ Mangalore Indore Chain via Vadodara ΣChain
  TW   
00
PNVL Dep: 13:40 to RTM Arr: 01:55
Travel Time: 36h 15m    -11 halts
Distance: 1099 km  1 xfers
Σ BCT INDB chain ΣChain
 MTWTFS
00
BCT Dep: 14:20 to RTM Arr: 01:55
Travel Time: 35h 35m    8 halts
Distance: 752 km  1 xfers
Σ DDR BPL TRAIN VIA SURAT ΣChain
no arr/dep
00
BVI Dep: 15:06 to RTM Arr: 03:05
Travel Time: 35h 59m    2 halts
Distance: 1345 km  1 xfers
Σ South Gujarat- Dhanbad/Howrah ΣChain
     F 
34
BVI Dep: 17:47 to RTM Arr: 06:00
Travel Time: 36h 13m    3 halts
Distance: 1054 km  1 xfers
Σ Bangalore-Vadodara-Ratlam link ΣChain
no arr/dep
05
KYN Dep: 21:30 to RTM Arr: 12:50
Travel Time: 39h 20m    -20 halts
Distance: 1202 km  1 xfers
Σ Pune Ratlam Link ΣChain
S      
00
KYN Dep: 22:30 to RTM Arr: 14:25
Travel Time: 39h 55m    29 halts
Distance: 1201 km  1 xfers
Do you have a ΣChain suggestion? Click here to create a ΣChain.
Scroll to Top
Scroll to Bottom


Go to Desktop site
Disclaimer: This website has NO affiliation with the Government-run site of Indian Railways. This site does NOT claim 100% accuracy of fast-changing Rail Information. YOU are responsible for independently confirming the validity of information through other sources.